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Oral Hygiene at Home Toothbrushing Dental plaque contains a thick flm of bacteria that have attached themselves to erectile dysfunction differential diagnosis buy extra super cialis 100mg free shipping the tooth’s surface impotence prostate purchase extra super cialis with a visa. Twice daily toothbrushing is the most effective method to erectile dysfunction due to drug use buy discount extra super cialis on-line remove plaque, thus preventing gum diseases and tooth decay. Manual and electric toothbrushes are overall equivalent in their ability to remove plaque. If an individual has physical limitations that can impact his or her physical ability to hold onto and use a toothbrush, adaptive aids may need to be constructed. The frequency of toothbrushing should be increased in patients who have a high risk for caries, such as individuals with reduced salivary fow, known as xerostomia. In the mouth, the surface of the tongue is heavily populated with microorganisms, which can contribute to halitosis and gum diseases. Toothpastes Patients should use a toothpaste that contains fuoride, which is the most effective agent for preventing dental decay. Many natural toothpastes do 204 Chapter 10: Oral and Dental Health Care not contain fuoride and therefore do not help to reduce the risk of caries. Some toothpastes contain the antimicrobial triclosan, which is also used in a number of skin cleaners and scrubs. An increasing number of studies suggest that triclosan may alter hormone regulation, and there are concerns about the emergence of triclosan-resistant bacteria. Some whitening toothpastes contain abrasive agents and chemical additives, such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium pyrophosphate, to help break down and remove surface stains. Therefore, whitening toothpastes are not worth the potential health effects that might be caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Plaque removal devices Plaque that forms between teeth is virtually unreachable by toothbrushing, but should be removed at least once daily by fossing to prevent gum disease and cavities. Various plaque-removal devices are available, including foss, tape, electric interdental cleaners, and wooden sticks; the choice of device should be based on the anatomy of the teeth and the dexterity of the patient. Other devices that can be used to remove plaque include interdental and end-tufted brushes. Mouth rinses and topical fuoride treatments Mouth rinses containing fuoride can be used to prevent tooth decay, rinses containing antimicrobials can prevent both tooth decay and gum disease, and both types of rinses can be used to improve breath odor. However, many mouth rinses contain alcohol, with concentrations ranging from 6%-26. Some studies suggest that alcohol-containing mouth rinses are associated with cancers of the mouth and throat, whereas other studies have found no association between these mouth rinses and cancer development. Alcohol-free mouth rinses are available and appear to be as effective as their alcohol containing counterparts. Mouth rinses that contain povidone iodine should not be used by patients who are allergic to iodine, children under 6 years of age, patients with thyroid disorders, or patients taking lithium. A number of over-the-counter mouth rinses are available to help control plaque accumulation. However, patients should be aware that many of these formulations have an alcohol content of 20% or greater, and should be avoided. Alcohol-free formulations are available and appear to be equally as effective (9). Topical fuoride treatments are available over-the-counter or by prescription, and are suitable for use in children as well as adults. Topical fuoride treatments can be self-applied using gels, mouth rinses, or varnishes. The application method should be selected based on the patient’s ability to use the method of application. Oral examinations Individuals should receive routine oral and dental examinations every 6 months. Examinations can occur more frequently if changes occur in the patient’s medical and dental conditions, such as the development of periodontitis, diabetes, or xerostomia. Therefore, the primary objectives of these exams include the prevention and early 206 Chapter 10: Oral and Dental Health Care detection of oral diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral cancer. During an exam, the dentist evaluates the inside of the mouth as well as the soft tissues of the head and neck; any unusual fndings should be further investigated.
Int J Clin bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure in acute pulmon Pharmacol Res 1998;18:121–128 erectile dysfunction operations cheap 100 mg extra super cialis visa. Comparative effects of Continuous infusion of furosemide in the treatment of patients with morphine erectile dysfunction pills cost cheap 100 mg extra super cialis fast delivery, meperidine and pentazocine on cardiocirculatory congestive heart failure and diuretic resistance erectile dysfunction treatment bodybuilding 100 mg extra super cialis visa. Combi with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in nation diuretic treatment in severe heart failure: a randomised con acutely ill medical patients. Diuretic therapy and resistance in congestive heart semide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary failure. Vasodilator therapy of cardiac failure Metolazone in treatment of severe refractory congestive cardiac (second of two parts). Spironolactone in medical treatment for the exacerbation of chronic heart failure congestive heart failure refractory to high-dose loop diuretic and resulting in hospitalization. Nesiritide for the treatment of decompensated heart of refractory congestive heart failure. Am Heart J of the beta-adrenergic receptor pathway in the intact failing human 2002;144:31–38. Diuretic ef cacy of high dose furosemide in severe heart failure: Circulation 1987;75:331–339. Eur Milrinone versus dobutamine in heart failure subjects treated Heart J 1996;17(Suppl. Beta blockade during heart failure: a randomized comparison of dobutamine and enoxi and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized mone before and after chronic treatment with metoprolol or carve trials. Pharmacologic and hemodynamic effects of combined beta myocardial infarction and indirect signs of congestive heart failure agonist stimulation and phosphodiesterase inhibition in the failing (a subgroup analysis of the Goteborg Metoprolol Trial). Effect of metoprolol on as bridge to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-nitrate indirect signs of the size and severity of acute myocardial infarction. Treatment of heart failure with celiprolol, a cardioselective beta after acute myocardial infarction: a randomized double-blind blocker with beta-2 agonist vasodilatory properties. Hemodynamic effects of metoprolol in acute myocar in the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated conges dial infarction. The development of positive inotropic agents for chronic of ischemia and inotropic stimulation. A random ness and relative effectiveness of intravenous inotropic drugs acting ized multicenter study comparing the ef cacy and safety of intrave through the adrenergic pathway in patients with heart failure—a nous milrinone and intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with meta-regression analysis. Eur Heart temic and renal effects of dopamine and angiotensin-converting J 1992;13:P1440. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; tive heart failure: hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses 36:1903–1912. Low-dose adrenoceptor density and evaluation of positive inotropic responses dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-con in isolated, diseased human myocardium. Force-frequency relationship and inotropic stimulation in the the management of patients with valvular heart disease. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with Guidelines (Committee on Management of Patients With Valvular heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol left ventricular function in shock complicating myocardial infarc 2003;41:659–660. Heart failure in outpatients: ment of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis: a study using a randomized trial of digoxin versus placebo. Effects of ouabain on impaired left ventricular function in acute prosthetic valve thrombosis: a single-center study of 127 cases. The pathogenesis of acute ables for prediction of arrhythmic events in survivors of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension. Systematic review of characterization of isolated diastolic heart failure in comparison the management of atrial brillation in patients with heart to systolic heart failure. Heart failure with a normal ejec due to predominant left ventricular failure: a report from the tion fraction: is it really a disorder of diastolic function Effects of enalapril on mortality clinical correlates in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating in severe congestive heart failure. Am Heart J Acute myocardial infarction complicated by systemic hypoperfusion 1994;128:564–574. Am J Assessment and management of complications in infective endocar Cardiol 1995;76:793–798. Tepel M, van der Giet M, Schwarzfeld C, Laufer U, Liermann D, Zidek Cardiol Clin 2003;21:235–251.
If the bacteria have not been cleared or a large number of bacteria still exist erectile dysfunction treatment natural food generic 100 mg extra super cialis fast delivery, 20 Effect of Titanium Surface Modi cations of Dental Implants on Rapid 249 Fig impotence workup cheap 100 mg extra super cialis amex. Therefore young husband erectile dysfunction purchase 100mg extra super cialis, prolonged cellular innate immune response would also impede the wound healing. To sum up, immune and in amma tory responses play an important role during the wound-healing process of foreign implants . In addition, another cell that is adsorbed onto the implant surface is the macrophage. Macrophages play an important role in phagocytosis of necrotic tis sue, secretion of broblast growth factor, and angiogenic growth factors . As osteoblast precursor cells adhered rmly, with the expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, the cells gradually differentiate into mature osteoblasts, fol lowed by continuously woven bone formation. In the process of bone remodeling, the gradual replacement of woven bone with lamellar bone depends on the interac tions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts . However, the differences between the natural wound-healing process and dental implant osseointegration lie in the topography, roughness, surface energy, chemical properties, and other elements of the implant surface that play an important role during this process [13, 14]. However, with the increase of surface roughness, the implant surface was also enlarged, which might aggravate bacterial colonization . As a result, the balance between the required biological reaction and elimination of plaque accumu lation around the implant needs to be considered . In addition, roughness of micron surface topography to a certain extent could activate speci c cell membrane receptors such as integrins, which serves as a communicator in the interactions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton [21, 22]. Previous studies indicate that surface roughness of natural bones is about 32 nm, and pore size of epithelial basement membrane is about 70–100 nm. Some studies show that the nanoscale surface materials are potent in altering the adhesion between the surface and the protein or cells. In addition, the surface of nano materials promotes osteoblast adhesion and proliferation [24, 25]. Generally, a surface with a contact angle of less than 90° is considered as a hydrophilic one and if the contact angle is equal to 0°, it is considered as a super-hydrophilic surface. Previous studies have shown that the surface contact angle of the pure titanium was about 70–90° regardless of surface roughness. Surfaces with different wet tability produce diverse biological effects of osseointegration, and the impact can be divided into the following four aspects: protein and biological macromolecular adhesion to the material surface, biological behavior of different cells on the sur face, the formation of the bacteria bio lm, and in vivo study of osseointegration. There are different views on the adhesion of protein on the surfaces with differ ent wettability. Previous studies have shown that the bronectin adhesion is much more facilitated on a hydrophilic surface than on the hydrophobic surface, and the bronectin adhering to the hydrophilic surface can maintain a better biological activity which could promote osteoblast adhesion and differentiation [7, 31 ]. Besides, the adhesion of other proteins which play important roles in osteogenic differentiation such as vitronectin and type I collagen is also affected by surfaces with diverse characteristics [34 ]. More recently, some results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on the super-hydrophilic surface is higher than the level of the expression of the cells on the hydrophobic 20 Effect of Titanium Surface Modi cations of Dental Implants on Rapid 251 surface, indicating that the super-hydrophilic surface is more conducive to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells than the hydrophobic surface [17, 35]. It was also implied that super-hydrophilic surface can serve better to pro mote osteoblast maturation and mineralization [15, 36]. Two weeks later, bones formed around the super-hydrophilic surfaces became much denser than those formed on the control surfaces. Another experiment conducted on healthy adult volunteers showed that the implants with super-hydrophilic surface can promote bone integra tion after 2–4 weeks . In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of the soft tissues around the implant such as epithelial cells and broblasts were simultane ously affected by the wettability of the surface. Similar results showed that super hydrophilic surface was helpful to form the rapid and compact soft tissue seal around the implant [31, 40]. In summary, a large number of studies deliver a conclu sion that the hydrophilic surface, especially the super-hydrophilic surface, exhibits preferable advantages in terms of promoting osseointegration in the early stage. The surfaces with relatively similar features can be obtained even through several completely different processes, whereas the same process can fabricate two different types of surfaces only by changing their param eters . Based on the topology and the average roughness value (Sa) of the mate rial surface, Albrektsson and Wennerberg et al. Among them, the medium rough surface exhibited satisfactory clinical results in compari son with smooth surface and rough surface. In another way by some other research ers, the implant surfaces can be classi ed into three categories based on the surface roughness: large roughness surface (Sa greater than 10 m), micro-sized roughness surface (Sa: 1–10 m), and nano-sized roughness surface . Among them, the rough surface demonstrated satisfactory performance in the protein adhesion, the formation of extracellular matrix, the promotion of osteogenic differentiation and osseointegration in vivo, etc.
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